Wednesday, 18 May 2022, 05:43 AM

Site: ONCE UPON A TIME IN... EUROPE
Course: ONCE UPON A TIME IN... EUROPE (Our Online Reading Space)
Glossary: Glossary of terms

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This was the year that Spanish Civil War started, on 17th July.

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Adela is the youngest daughter of the Bernarda Alba family in the play The House of Bernarda Alba, of the spanish writer Federico Garc?a Lorca, and the only one to defy Bernarda. She is in love with Pepe el Romano and carries on a secret rendezvous with him until her sister Martirio intervenes and they have a scuffle, drawing the attention of the sleeping household. Adela's guilt is revealed by the discovery of straw on her skirt. She then freely admits that she has been with Pepe el Romano. She hangs herself at the play's climax.

(source: Wikipedia)
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Allegory is a device in which characters or events represent or symbolize ideas and concepts. Allegory has been used widely throughout the history of art, and in all forms of artwork. A reason for this is that allegory has an immense power of illustrating complex ideas and concepts in a digestible, concrete way. In allegory a message is communicated by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric; a rhetorical allegory is a demonstrative form of representation conveying meaning other than the words that are spoken.

Allegory of arithmetic, by Laurent de La Hyre, ca 1650
Allegory of arithmetic, by Laurent de La Hyre, ca 1650

As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. One of the best known examples is Plato's "The Allegory of the Cave." In this allegory, there are a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them, and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows. According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality.

(source: Wikipedia)
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The Austrian Empire (Austrian German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum ?sterreich) was a modern era successor empire centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. The Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867 to 1918) was itself dissolved by the victors at the end of World War I and broken into separate new states.

Austrian Empire in 1859

The term "Austrian Empire" is also used for the Habsburg possessions before 1804, which had no official collective name, although Austria is more frequent.

(source: Wikipedia)

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The Baroque is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.

Still-life, Josefa de ?bidos
Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de ?bidos, c.1679, Santar?m, Portugal, Municipal Library

(source: Wikipedia)
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Bronte is a town and comune of Sicily (in the province of Catania, Italy), near Mount Etna.

Bronte, Sicily (See a bigger map)

In 1860, during Garibaldi's Expedition of the thousand, there was a riot. The peasants had hoped for ? and did not get from Garibaldi ? an immediate relief from the grievous conditions to which they were forced by the landowners. They revolted in several localities, and at Bronte, on August 4, 1860, Garibaldi's friend Nino Bixio bloodily repressed one of these revolts with two battalions of Redshirts.

(source: Wikipedia)

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Caprera is a small island off the coast of Sardinia, Italy, located in the Maddalena archipelago.


Caprera, Italy (See a bigger map)


In the area of La Maddalena island in the Strait of Bonifacio, it is a tourist destination and is famous as the place to which Giuseppe Garibaldi retired (1856?82).

This island has been declared a natural reserve for the particular species of seabirds living on it (royal seagull, cormorant and peregrine falcon). The island's name is linked to that of Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian patriot and fighter who lived in the 19th century and was one of the fathers of the Italian independence. He bought the island in 1855 and died there in 1882. His house is now a museum and a memorial chapel and the island itself is a national monument. Caprera is linked to La Maddalena island by a 600 metre long causeway.

The island was probably given its name because of the numerous wild goats living on it (capra means "goat" in Italian).

It is the second largest island in the archipelago and has a surface of 15.7 km² and 45 kilometres of coastline. Monte Tejalone is the highest point (212 m). On the south-western side there is a very important sailing centre and the many coves and anchorages which can be found along the coastline make the landing easy.

Many remains of Roman cargo ships as well as of the boat of Garibaldi were found there. After the Roman occupation, Caprera remained deserted for centuries before being inhabited by groups of shepherds. Later in 1855 Garibaldi decided to settle there and planted the first trees of the blooming pinewood which covers the island today. A century after Garibaldi's death the island was freed from the numerous existing military restrictions and is now completely open to the public.

(source: Wikipedia)

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The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento took place in 1860. A corps of volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi landed in Sicily in order to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled by the Bourbons.

The beginning of the expedition at Quarto
The beginning of the expedition at Quarto.

The project was an ambitious and risky venture to conquer, with a thousand men, a kingdom with a larger regular army and a more powerful navy. The expedition was a success and concluded with a plebiscite that brought Naples and Sicily into the Kingdom of Sardinia, the last territorial conquest before the creation of the Kingdom of Italy on March 17, 1861.

The sea venture was the only desired action that was jointly decided by the "four fathers of the nation" Italian Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II and Camillo Cavour, pursuing divergent goals. It is difficult to determine the true instigator: Mazzini desired to release the Mezzogiorno and Rome while Garibaldi wants to conquer in the name of Victor Emmanuel II, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and continue to Rome to complete the unity of Italy, Cavour that wants to prevent at all costs to avoid a conflict with his French ally, Napoleon III, which protects Rome.

The expedition also brings new large collective ambiguity and misunderstanding: for Garibaldi, it is to achieve a united Italy; to the Sicilian bourgeoisie, an independent Sicily as part of the kingdom of Italy, and for the mass farmers, the end of oppression and land distribution.

(source: Wikipedia)

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Federico del Sagrado Coraz?n de Jes?s Garc?a Lorca (Spanish pronunciation: [fe?e??iko ?ar?θi.a ?lorka]; 5 June 1898 ? 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, dramatist and theatre director. Garc?a Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblematic member of the Generation of '27.

Federico Garc?a Lorca

He was murdered by fascists forces during the Spanish Civil War. In 2008, a Spanish judge opened an investigation into Lorca's death. The Garc?a Lorca family eventually dropped objections to the excavation of a potential gravesite near Alfacar. However, no human remains were found.

(source: Wikipedia)
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Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist is "an advocate or supporter of the rights and equality of women".

(source: Wikipedia)