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The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: Regno delle Due Sicilie; Sicilian: Regnu d? Dui Sicili; Neapolitan: Regno d' 'e dduje Sicilie) was the largest of the Italian states before Italian unification. It was formed of a union of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples in 1816 and lasted until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia, which became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The Two Sicilies had its capital in Naples and was commonly referred to in English as the "Kingdom of Naples".

Map of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The kingdom extended over the Mezzogiorno (the southern part of mainland Italy) and the island of Sicily. Lancaster notes that the integration of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in the Kingdom of Italy changed the status of Naples forever: "Abject poverty meant that, throughout Naples and Southern Italy, thousands decided to leave in search of a better future." Many went to the United States. It was heavily agricultural, like the other Italian states; the church owned 50?65% of the land by 1750.

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This was the year that Spanish Civil War started, on 17th July.
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Francis II (Italian: Francesco II, christened Francesco d'Assisi Maria Leopoldo, 16 January 1836 ? 27 December 1894), was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. He was the last King of the Two Sicilies, as successive invasions by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia ultimately brought an end to his rule, and marked the first major event of Italian unification. After he was deposed, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Kingdom of Sardinia were merged into the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.

Francis II of the Two Sicilies in the english Wikipedia

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Francisco G?mez de Quevedo y Santib??ez Villegas (Spanish: [f?an?θisko ?e ke?βe?o]; 14 September 1580 ? 8 September 1645) was a Spanish nobleman, politician and writer of the Baroque era.

Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas

Along with his lifelong rival, Luis de G?ngora, Quevedo was one of the most prominent Spanish poets of the age. His style is characterized by what was called conceptismo. This style existed in stark contrast to G?ngora's culteranismo.

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Luis de G?ngora y Argote (11 July 1561 ? 24 May 1627) was a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. G?ngora and his lifelong rival, Francisco de Quevedo, are widely considered the most prominent Spanish poets of all time.

Luis de G?ngora y Argote

His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism (Gongorismo). This style existed in stark contrast to Quevedo's conceptismo.

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The Baroque is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe.

Still-life, Josefa de ?bidos
Still-life, by Portuguese painter Josefa de ?bidos, c.1679, Santar?m, Portugal, Municipal Library

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The Generation of '27 (Spanish: Generaci?n del 27) was an influential group of poets that arose in Spanish literary circles between 1923 and 1927, essentially out of a shared desire to experience and work with avant-garde forms of art and poetry. Their first formal meeting took place in Seville in 1927 to mark the 300th anniversary of the death of the baroque poet Luis de G?ngora.

Monument to Gerardo Diego in Madrid
Monument to Gerardo Diego, Madrid.

Writers and intellectuals celebrated an homage in the Ateneo de Sevilla, which retrospectively became the foundational act of the movement. One of the members of this group was Federico Garc?a Lorca.

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Adela is the youngest daughter of the Bernarda Alba family in the play The House of Bernarda Alba, of the spanish writer Federico Garc?a Lorca, and the only one to defy Bernarda. She is in love with Pepe el Romano and carries on a secret rendezvous with him until her sister Martirio intervenes and they have a scuffle, drawing the attention of the sleeping household. Adela's guilt is revealed by the discovery of straw on her skirt. She then freely admits that she has been with Pepe el Romano. She hangs herself at the play's climax.

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Federico del Sagrado Coraz?n de Jes?s Garc?a Lorca (Spanish pronunciation: [fe?e??iko ?ar?θi.a ?lorka]; 5 June 1898 ? 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, dramatist and theatre director. Garc?a Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblematic member of the Generation of '27.

Federico Garc?a Lorca

He was murdered by fascists forces during the Spanish Civil War. In 2008, a Spanish judge opened an investigation into Lorca's death. The Garc?a Lorca family eventually dropped objections to the excavation of a potential gravesite near Alfacar. However, no human remains were found.

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Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo, 12 January 1810 ? 22 May 1859) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859.

Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies

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Joyce Carol Oates (born June 16, 1938) is an American author. Oates published her first book in 1963 and has since published over fifty novels, as well as many volumes of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction. Her novel them (1969) won the National Book Award, and her novels Black Water (1992), What I Lived For (1994), and Blonde (2000) were nominated for the Pulitzer Prize.

Joyce Carol Oates

As of 2008, Oates is the Roger S. Berlind '52 Professor in the Humanities with the Program in Creative Writing at Princeton University, where she has taught since 1978.

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Louise Michelle Rosenblatt (23 August 1904 in Atlantic City, New Jersey ? 8 February 2005 in Arlington, Virginia) was an American university professor. She is best known as a researcher into the teaching of literature.

Louise Rosenblatt

She is best known for her influential texts Literature as Exploration (1938) and "The Reader, The Text, The Poem: The Transactional Theory of the Literary Work" (1978), in which she argues that the act of reading literature involves a transaction between the reader and the text. Each "transaction" is a unique experience in which the reader and text continuously act and are acted upon by each other. A written work (often referred to as a "poem" in her writing) does not have the same meaning for everyone, as each reader brings individual background knowledge, beliefs, and context into the reading act. Additionally, she distinguished between different kinds of reading with her defined "stances". Rosenblatt placed all reading transactions on a continuum between "aesthetic" -or reading for pleasure, experiencing the poem-and "efferent" -or reading to gain meaning. Rosenblatt maintained that the act of reading was a dynamic '"transaction" between the reader and the text. She argued that the meaning of any text lay not in the work itself but in the reader's interaction with it, whether it was a play by Shakespeare or a novel by Toni Morrison. Her work made her a well-known reader-response theorist.

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The Austrian Empire (Austrian German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum ?sterreich) was a modern era successor empire centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867. It was followed by the Empire of Austria-Hungary, whose proclamation was a diplomatic move that elevated Hungary's status within the Austrian Empire as a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. The Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867 to 1918) was itself dissolved by the victors at the end of World War I and broken into separate new states.

Austrian Empire in 1859

The term "Austrian Empire" is also used for the Habsburg possessions before 1804, which had no official collective name, although Austria is more frequent.

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Giuseppe Garibaldi (Italian pronunciation: [d?u?z?ppe ?ari?baldi]) (July 4, 1807 ? June 2, 1882) was an Italian general and politician. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland".

Garibaldi was a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento, since he personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the formation of a unified Italy. He generally tried to act on behalf of a legitimate power, which does not make him exactly a revolutionary: for example, he was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

He has been called the "Hero of Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in South America and Europe. These earned him a considerable reputation in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances.

In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers in lieu of a uniform.

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Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte, pronounced [pje?monte]; Piedmontese and Occitan: Piemont; French: Pi?mont) is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.4 million. The capital of Piedmont is Turin.

Piedmont

The main local language is Piedmontese. Occitan is also spoken by a minority in the Occitan Valleys situated in the Provinces of Cuneo and Turin. Franco-Proven?al is also spoken by another minority in the alpine heights of the Province of Turin. The name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i.e., ad pedem montium, meaning ?at the foot of the mountains? (attested in documents of the end of the 13th century).

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The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento took place in 1860. A corps of volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi landed in Sicily in order to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled by the Bourbons.

The beginning of the expedition at Quarto
The beginning of the expedition at Quarto.

The project was an ambitious and risky venture to conquer, with a thousand men, a kingdom with a larger regular army and a more powerful navy. The expedition was a success and concluded with a plebiscite that brought Naples and Sicily into the Kingdom of Sardinia, the last territorial conquest before the creation of the Kingdom of Italy on March 17, 1861.

The sea venture was the only desired action that was jointly decided by the "four fathers of the nation" Italian Giuseppe Mazzini, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Victor Emmanuel II and Camillo Cavour, pursuing divergent goals. It is difficult to determine the true instigator: Mazzini desired to release the Mezzogiorno and Rome while Garibaldi wants to conquer in the name of Victor Emmanuel II, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and continue to Rome to complete the unity of Italy, Cavour that wants to prevent at all costs to avoid a conflict with his French ally, Napoleon III, which protects Rome.

The expedition also brings new large collective ambiguity and misunderstanding: for Garibaldi, it is to achieve a united Italy; to the Sicilian bourgeoisie, an independent Sicily as part of the kingdom of Italy, and for the mass farmers, the end of oppression and land distribution.

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Bronte is a town and comune of Sicily (in the province of Catania, Italy), near Mount Etna.

Bronte, Sicily (See a bigger map)

In 1860, during Garibaldi's Expedition of the thousand, there was a riot. The peasants had hoped for ? and did not get from Garibaldi ? an immediate relief from the grievous conditions to which they were forced by the landowners. They revolted in several localities, and at Bronte, on August 4, 1860, Garibaldi's friend Nino Bixio bloodily repressed one of these revolts with two battalions of Redshirts.

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The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs.

House of Bourbon coat of arms

Bourbon monarchs ruled Navarre (from 1555) and France (from 1589) until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet branch, the House of Orl?ans, then ruled for 18 years (1830?1848), until it too was overthrown. The Princes of Cond? were a cadet branch of the dukes of Vend?mes and, in turn, were senior to the Princes of Conti both of which are now extinct.

Philip V of Spain was the first Bourbon of Spain. The Spanish Bourbons (in Spanish, the name is spelled Borb?n) have been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700?1808, 1813?1868, 1875?1931, and 1975 to the present day. From this Spanish line comes the royal line of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1734?1806 and 1815?1860, and Sicily only in 1806?1816), the Bourbon of the Two Sicilies family, and the Bourbon rulers of the Duchy of Parma.

Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have also been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial, the declared heiress and thrice-regent of the now-defunct Empire of Brazil, married twenty years before their deposition Prince Gaston, Count of Eu, their descendants, known as the Orl?ans and Braganza, would have ascended to that throne had the empire not ended in 1889.

From the time of Hugh Capet to Charles X (987?1830), the senior Capets were also the Kings of France. In 1589, Henry IV of France, head of the House of Bourbon, became the senior Capet, following the extinction of male line of the House of Valois. All members of the House of Bourbon and its cadet branches alive today are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV.

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Caprera is a small island off the coast of Sardinia, Italy, located in the Maddalena archipelago.


Caprera, Italy (See a bigger map)


In the area of La Maddalena island in the Strait of Bonifacio, it is a tourist destination and is famous as the place to which Giuseppe Garibaldi retired (1856?82).

This island has been declared a natural reserve for the particular species of seabirds living on it (royal seagull, cormorant and peregrine falcon). The island's name is linked to that of Giuseppe Garibaldi, an Italian patriot and fighter who lived in the 19th century and was one of the fathers of the Italian independence. He bought the island in 1855 and died there in 1882. His house is now a museum and a memorial chapel and the island itself is a national monument. Caprera is linked to La Maddalena island by a 600 metre long causeway.

The island was probably given its name because of the numerous wild goats living on it (capra means "goat" in Italian).

It is the second largest island in the archipelago and has a surface of 15.7 km² and 45 kilometres of coastline. Monte Tejalone is the highest point (212 m). On the south-western side there is a very important sailing centre and the many coves and anchorages which can be found along the coastline make the landing easy.

Many remains of Roman cargo ships as well as of the boat of Garibaldi were found there. After the Roman occupation, Caprera remained deserted for centuries before being inhabited by groups of shepherds. Later in 1855 Garibaldi decided to settle there and planted the first trees of the blooming pinewood which covers the island today. A century after Garibaldi's death the island was freed from the numerous existing military restrictions and is now completely open to the public.

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Sardinia (Italian: Sardegna, Sardinian: Sardigna) is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and before Cyprus) and an autonomous region of Italy. The nearest land masses are (clockwise from north) the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Balearic Islands.

Sardinia, Italy

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Allegory is a device in which characters or events represent or symbolize ideas and concepts. Allegory has been used widely throughout the history of art, and in all forms of artwork. A reason for this is that allegory has an immense power of illustrating complex ideas and concepts in a digestible, concrete way. In allegory a message is communicated by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric; a rhetorical allegory is a demonstrative form of representation conveying meaning other than the words that are spoken.

Allegory of arithmetic, by Laurent de La Hyre, ca 1650
Allegory of arithmetic, by Laurent de La Hyre, ca 1650

As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. One of the best known examples is Plato's "The Allegory of the Cave." In this allegory, there are a group of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them, and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows. According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality.

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Jos? Lu?s Peixoto (born 4 September 1974, in Galveias, Portalegre, Portugal), is a Portuguese writer who has written fiction, poetry, drama, lyrics and has participated in a wide number of projects involving writing.

Jos? Lu?s Peixoto

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Ferit Orhan Pamuk (generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk; born 7 June 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. One of Turkey's most prominent novelists, his work has sold over eleven million books in sixty languages, making him the country's best-selling writer.

Orhan Pamuk in 2008
Orhan Pamuk in 2008

Born in Istanbul, Pamuk is Robert Yik-Fong Tam Professor in the Humanities at Columbia University, where he teaches comparative literature and writing. His novels include The White Castle, The Black Book, The New Life, My Name Is Red and Snow.

As well as the Nobel Prize in Literature (the first Nobel Prize to be awarded to a Turkish citizen), Pamuk is the recipient of numerous other literary awards. My Name Is Red won the 2002 Prix du Meilleur Livre ?tranger, 2002 Premio Grinzane Cavour and 2003 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award.

The European Writers' Parliament came about as a result of a joint proposal by Pamuk and Jos? Saramago. In 2005, Pamuk was put on trial in Turkey after he made a statement regarding the Armenian Genocide and mass killing of Kurds in the Ottoman Empire. His intention, according to Pamuk himself, had been to highlight issues relating to freedom of speech (or lack thereof) in the country of his birth. The ensuing controversy featured the burning of Pamuk's books at rallies. He has also been the target of assassination attempts.

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Snow (Turkish: Kar) is a novel by Turkish author Orhan Pamuk. It was published in Turkish in 2002 and in English (translated by Maureen Freely) in 2004. The story encapsulates many of the political and cultural tensions of modern Turkey and successfully combines humor, social commentary, mysticism, and a deep sympathy with its characters.

Snow, by Orhan Pamuk

Kar is the word for Snow, but the main character also abbreviates his name to Ka (his initials) with the novel set in the eastern Turkish city of Kars. An opening (and recurring) theme concerns reasons behind a suicide epidemic among teenage girls (which actually took place in the city of Batman).

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A metaphor is a literary figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object. Metaphor is a type of analogy and is closely related to other rhetorical figures of speech that achieve their effects via association, comparison or resemblance including allegory, hyperbole, and simile.

One of the most prominent examples of a metaphor in English literature is the All the world's a stage monologue from As You Like It:

All the world?s a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;

William Shakespeare, As You Like It, 2/7

This quote is a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage. By figuratively asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses the points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about the mechanics of the world and the lives of the people within it.
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Symbolism is the practice of representing things by symbols, or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character. A symbol is an object, action, or idea that represents something other than itself, often of a more abstract nature. Symbolism creates quality aspects that make literature like poetry and novels more meaningful.

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The Kingdom of Sardinia (Italian: Regno di Sardegna, Sardinian: Rennu de Sardigna, Piemontese: Regn ?d Sard?gna; also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont) consisted of the possessions of the House of Savoy from 1720 or 1723 onwards, following the award of the crown of Sardinia to King Victor Amadeus II of Savoy under the Treaty of The Hague (1720). This compensated him for the loss of the crown of Sicily to Austria and allowed him to retain the title of king, as the title "King of Sardinia" had existed since the 14th century.

Kingdom of Sardinia

Besides Sardinia, the Savoyard state at that time included Savoy, Piedmont, and Nice; Liguria, including Genoa, was added by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. During most of the 18th and 19th centuries, the political and economic capital of the kingdom was Turin in Piedmont on the Italian mainland. In 1860, Nice and Savoy were ceded to France in return for French consent and assistance in Italian unification. In 1861, the Kingdom of Sardinia became the founding state of the new Kingdom of Italy, annexing all other Italian states. The Kingdom thus continued in legal continuity with the new Italian state, to which it transferred all its institutions.

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Redshirts (Italian Camicie rosse) or Red coats (Italian Giubbe Rosse) is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi in southern Italy during his Mille expedition to southern Italy, but sometimes extended to other campaigns of his. The name derived from the colour of their shirts (complete uniforms were beyond the finances of the Italian patriots).

Garibaldi, in a popular colour lithograph
Garibaldi, in a popular colour lithograph

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The Spanish Civil War was fought from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939 between the Republicans, who were loyal to the established Spanish republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco. The Nationalists prevailed and Franco would rule Spain for the next 36 years.

Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano, September 5, 1936, by Robert Capa.
Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death,
Cerro Muriano, September 5, 1936
, by Robert Capa.


The war began after a pronunciamiento (declaration of opposition) by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces under the leadership of Jos? Sanjurjo against the elected government of the Second Spanish Republic, at the time under the leadership of President Manuel Aza?a. The rebel coup was supported by a number of conservative groups including the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, monarchists such as the religious conservative Carlists, and the Fascist Falange.

The coup was supported by military units in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Valladolid, C?diz, Cordova, and Seville. However, barracks in important cities such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao and M?laga did not join in the rebellion. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The rebels, led by General Franco, then embarked upon a war of attrition against the established government for the control of the country. The rebel forces received support from Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and neighboring Portugal, while the Soviet Union and Mexico intervened in support of the "loyalist," or Republican, side. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom and France, operated an official policy of non-intervention.

Atrocities were committed by both sides in the war. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces to consolidate the future regime. A smaller but significant number of killings took place in areas controlled by the Republicans, normally associated with a breakdown in law and order. The extent to which killings in Republican territory were carried out with connivance of the Republican authorities varied. The Civil War became notable for the passion and political division it inspired. Tens of thousands of civilians on both sides were killed for their political or religious views, and after the War's conclusion in 1939, those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists.

The war ended with the victory of the Nationalists and the exile of thousands of left-leaning Spaniards, many of whom fled to refugee camps in Southern France. With the establishment of a Fascist dictatorship led by General Francisco Franco in the aftermath of the Civil War, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime.

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Feminism is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. A feminist is "an advocate or supporter of the rights and equality of women".

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Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (Polish pronunciation: [?x?nr?k ?adam al??ksand?r ?p?us ????k?ev?it??]; also known as "Litwos" [?litf?s]; May 5, 1846 ? November 15, 1916) was a Polish journalist and Nobel Prize-winning novelist. A Polish szlachcic (noble) of the Oszyk coat of arms, he was one of the most popular Polish writers at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1905 for his "outstanding merits as an epic writer."

Henryk Sienkiewicz, portrait by Kazimierz Mordasewicz (1899)
Henryk Sienkiewicz, portrait by Kazimierz Mordasewicz (1899)

Born into an impoverished noble family in Russian-ruled Poland, Sienkiewicz wrote historical novels set during the Rzeczpospolita (Polish Republic, or Commonwealth). Many of his novels were first serialized in newspapers, and even today are still in print. In Poland, he is best known for his historical novels "With Fire and Sword", "The Deluge", and "Pan Michael" (The Trilogy) set during the 17th-century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, while internationally he is best known for Quo Vadis, set in Nero's Rome. Quo Vadis has been filmed several times, most notably the 1951 version.

Latarnik (Lighthouse Keeper) is a short story writen by Henryk Sienkiewicz in 1881.

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?If I am in the mood, I will play. I will sing.  And I will dance the Zembekiko, the Hassepiko, the Pentozalit ? but I tell you plainly from the start, I must be in the mood.  Let?s have that clear.  If you force me, it?ll be finished.  As regards those things, you must realise, I am a man.?

? A man? What do you mean??

?Well, free!?


?It is a mystery, he murmured, a great mystery! So, if we want liberty in this bad world, we?ve got to have all those murders, all those lousy tricks, have we? I tell you. If I began to go over all the bloody villainy and all the murders we did, you?d have your hair stand on end.  And yet, the result of all that, what?s it been?? ? Liberty!?  ?Instead of wiping us out with a thunderbolt, God gives us liberty!?

?I just don?t understand!?


?How does a plant sprout and grow into a flower on manure and muck? Say to yourself, Zorba, that the manure and muck is man and the flower liberty.?


?For hundreds of years, Dante?s verses have been sung in the poet?s  country. And just as love songs prepare Italian girls for love, so the ardent Florentine verses prepared Italian youths for the day of deliveries. From generation to generation, all communed with the soul of the poet and so transformed their slavery into freedom?


?Did you hear that bird? It seemed to say something to us, than it flew away.?

?My friend smiled.? It?s a bird, let it sing;? ?it?s a bird let it speak,? he said, quoting  a line  from one of our popular ballads.?

?How was it that at this moment, at daybreak on this Cretan coast, such a memory should come into my head, together with that faithful verse, and fill my mind with bitterness.?

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