Tag Archives: journals

Cellular Automata Incorporating Follow-the-Leader Principles to Model Crowd Dynamics

Journal of Cellular Automata 8(5-6): 333-346, 2013.

C. Vihas, I.G. Georgoudas, G.Ch. Sirakoulis.

Following the leader is a bio–inspired technique that is intuitively adopted by living organisms when moving together. Trying to emulate physical processes, the proposed here Cellular Automaton (CA) model aims at crowd movement simulation by embedding the follow–the–leader technique as its fundamental driving mechanism. Prominent characteristics of the collective motion of biological organisms are apparent to the simulation process. Macroscopically, the study focuses on the emergence of qualitative attributes of crowd behaviour, such as collective effects, random to coherent motion due to a common purpose and transition to incoordination (arching) due to clogging. Microscopically, all configurations of the CA model are triggered by simple rules applied locally to each of the group members. These CA rules are enhanced with memory capacity to gain back model’s reversibility and prevent group members from self–entrapment. The inherent attributes of CA allowed the development of a micro–operating model that presents macro–features. Different simulation scenarios validate the response of the presented model.

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Modelling Earthquake Activity Features Using Cellular Automata

Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 46 (1-2), 124-137, 2007.

I.G. Georgoudas, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, I. Andreadis.

Cellular Automata (CAs) are a powerful technique for modelling otherwise intractably complex systems. On the other hand, earthquake can be defined as a spatially extended dissipative dynamical system that naturally evolves into a critical state with no characteristic time or length scales. In this paper, a two-dimensional CA model capable of reproducing some prominent features of earthquake data is presented. The proposed model with continuous states and discrete time, constituted of cells-charges aims at simulate earthquake activity with the usage of potentials. Several measurements have been carried out different critical states, leading to different paths to criticality, for various cascade (earthquake) sizes, various cell activities and different neighbourhood sizes. Most notably, the produced simulation results emulate the Gutenberg–Richter (GR) scaling law, in both quantitative and qualitative way. Furthermore, the CA model has been implemented with a user-friendly interface and the user can change several of its parameters, in order to study various hypotheses concerning the aforementioned earthquake activity features

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A Cellular Automaton simulation tool for modelling seismicity in the region of Xanthi

Environmental Modelling & Software, 22 (10), 1455-1464, 2007.

I.G. Georgoudas, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, E.M. Scordilis and I. Andreadis.

Seismicity is an extended geophysical characteristic of the Greek dominion. There are certain areas of high seismic activity, as well as, regions of low seismicity where strong earthquakes are rather rare events. Consequently, it is of great interest to present a methodology concerning the earthquake process in Greece even for areas considered to be of low seismicity. In this paper, it is presented the study of the earthquake activity of an area in Northeastern Greece, centred at Xanthi, Thrace, extended over a region of radius R = 80 km, during a certain time period. A two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) dynamic system consisting of cells-charges is used for the simulation of the earthquake process. The model has been tested as well as calibrated using the recorded events of the above-mentioned region as initial conditions. The simulation results are found in good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the Gutenberg–Richter (GR) scaling relations. Finally, the CA model has a user-friendly interface and enables the user to change several of its parameters, in order to study various hypotheses concerning the seismicity of the region under consideration.

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On Chip Earthquake Simulation Model Using Potentials

Natural Hazards, 50, 519–537, 2009.

I.G. Georgoudas, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, E.M. Scordilis, and I. Andreadis.

A two dimensional (2-D) Cellular Automata (CA) dynamic system constituted of cells-charges has been proposed for the simulation of the earthquake process. The CA model has been calibrated with the use of real data. The calibration incorporates major seismic characteristics of the area under test. The simulation results are found in good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the recorded Gutenberg–Richter (GR) scaling relations. The model is enriched with a powerful multi-parameter interface that enables the user to load real data from different regions. This paper examines the on-chip realization of the model and its instrumentation. The CA model hardware implementation is based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) logic. It utilizes an array of 32×32 cells. Parameters that construct the local CA rule constitute the input data. The initial seed, which in some extend corresponds to the seismic features of the area under test, is loaded in a semi-parallel way and the process is completed in a certain number of time steps. The automatic response of the processor provides the corresponding GR scaling law of the area under study. The hardware implementation of the CA based earthquake simulation model is advantageous in terms of low-cost, high-speed, compactness and portability features. It can operate as a preliminary data-acquisition filter that accelerates the evaluation of recorded data as far as its origin time, spatial and magnitude completeness and quality are concerned. Software that performs reliable automatic phase picking, as well as data elaboration, can be assembled next to the earthquake recording instruments (the whole network) output to assure a quick and reliable iteration of the focal parameters of a recorded earthquake (epicentre coordinates, focal depth and magnitude). The dedicated processor can be accommodated right after this stage (before any manual elaboration) focusing on the near real-time development of a reliable qualitative dynamical seismic record and a mapping of the seismic characteristics of the area.

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An FPGA Implemented Cellular Automaton Crowd Evacuation Model Inspired by the Electrostatic-Induced Potential Fields

Microprocessors and Microsystems, 34, 285-300, 2010.

I.G. Georgoudas, P. Kyriakos, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, and I. Andreadis.

This paper studies the on-chip realisation of a dynamic model proposed to simulate crowd behaviour, originated from electrostatic-induced potential fields. It is based on Cellular Automata (CA), thus taking advantage of their inherent ability to represent sufficiently phenomena of arbitrary complexity and, additionally, to be simulated precisely by digital computers. The model combines electrostatic-induced potential fields to incorporate flexibility in the movement of pedestrians. It primarily calculates distances in an obstacle filled space based on the Euclidean metric. Furthermore, it adopts a computationally fast and efficient method to overcome trouble-inducing obstacles by shifting the moving mechanism to a potential field method based on Manhattan distance. The hardware implementation of the model is based on FPGA logic. Initialisation of the dedicated processor takes place in collaboration with a detecting and tracking algorithm supported by cameras. The instant response of the processor provides the location of pedestrians around exits. Hardware implementation exploits the prominent feature of parallelism that CA structures inherently possess in contrast to the serial computers, thus accelerating the response of the model. Furthermore, FPGA implementation of the model is advantageous in terms of low-cost, high-speed, compactness and portability features. Finally, the processor could be used as a part of an embedded, real-time, decision support system, aiming at the efficient guidance of crowd in cases of mass egress.

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An Anticipative Crowd Management System Preventing Clogging in Exits during Pedestrian Evacuation Processes

ΙΕΕΕ Systems Journal, 5 (1), 129-141, 2011.

I.G. Georgoudas, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, and I. Andreadis.

This paper presents an anticipative system which operates during pedestrian evacuation processes and prevents escape points from congestion. The processing framework of the system includes four discrete stages; a) the detection and tracking of pedestrians, b) the estimation of possible route for the very near future, indicating possible congestion in exits, c) the proposal of free and nearby escape alternatives and d) the activation of guiding signals, sound and optical. Detection and tracking of pedestrians is based on an enhanced implementation of a system proposed by Viola, Jones and Snow that incorporates both appearance and motion information in near real-time. At any moment, detected pedestrians can instantly be defined as the initial condition of the second stage of the system, i.e. the route estimation model. Route estimation is enabled by a dynamic model inspired by electrostatic-induced potential fields. The model combines electrostatic-induced potential fields to incorporate flexibility in the movement of pedestrians. It is based on Cellular Automata (CA), thus taking advantage of their inherent ability to represent effectively phenomena of arbitrary complexity. Presumable congestion during crowd egress, leads to the prompt activation of sound and optical signals that guide pedestrians towards alternative escaping points. Anticipative crowd management has not been thoroughly employed and this system aims at constituting an effective proposal.

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Parametric Optimisation in a 2-D Cellular Automata Model of Fundamental Seismic Attributes with the Use of Genetic Algorithms

Advances in Engineering Software, 4, 623-633, 2011.

I.G. Georgoudas, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, E.M. Scordilis and I. Andreadis.

A two-dimensional (2-D) cellular automata (CA) dynamic system constituted of cells-charges has been proposed for the simulation of the earthquake process. In this paper, the study is focused on the optimal parameterisation of the model introducing the use of genetic algorithm (GA). The optimisation of the CA model parameterisation, by applying a standard GA, extends its ability to study various hypotheses concerning the seismicity of the region under consideration. The GA evolves an initially random population of candidate solutions of model parameters, such that in time appropriate solutions to emerge. The quality criterion is realised by taking into account the extent that the simulation results match the Gutenberg–Richter (GR) law derived from recorded data of the area under test. The simulation results presented here regard regions of Greece with different seismic and geophysical characteristics. The results found are in good quantitative and qualitative agreement with the GR scaling relations.

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An Event-Driven Model Simulating Fundamental Seismic Characteristics with the Use of Cellular Automata

Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 49, 64-78, 2012. 

L. Pavlou, I.G. Georgoudas, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, E.M. Scordilis and I. Andreadis. 

This paper presents an extensive simulation tool based on a Cellular Automata (CA) system that models fundamental seismic characteristics of a region. The CA-based dynamic model consists of cells-charges and it is used for the simulation of the earthquake process. The simulation tool has remarkably accelerated the response of the model by incorporating principles of the High Performance Computing (HPC). Extensive programming features of parallel computing have been applied, thus improving its processing effectiveness. The tool implements an enhanced (or hyper-) 2-dimensional version of the proposed CA model. Regional characteristics that depend on the seismic background of the area under study are assigned to the model with the application of a user-friendly software environment. The model is evaluated with real data that correspond to a circular region around Skyros Island, Greece, for different time periods, as for example one of 45 years (1901–1945). The enhanced 2-dimensional version of the model incorporates all principal characteristics of the 2-dimensional one, also including groups of CA cells that interact with others, located to a considerable distance in an attempt to simulate long-range interaction. The advanced simulation tool has been thoroughly evaluated. Several measurements have been made for different critical states, as well as for various cascade (earthquake) sizes, cell activities and different neighbourhood sizes. Simulation results qualitatively approach the Gutenberg–Richter (GR) scaling law and reveal fundamental characteristics of the system.

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